The Mark Of Halaal Integrity Since 2005

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E-Numbers

Simply put, E- numbers are the code numbers used to identify food additives which are officially approved a safe to consume. While additives, liaison with European Union legislation is a must as most additives are acceptable in specific foods with certain quantitative limits. Additives must be assessed for safety before they can be used in food to ensure the science on additives is strictly reviewed, the law strictly enforced, and the action taken where problems are found. Whilst some additives with a common code such as E471, can be either of animal or plant origin and this latter type needs to be investigated on a case-by-case basis per product/ manufacturer. Most of the additives are however suitable. The E-numbers are categorized as follows:

E100-199 Food colorsE200-299 Preservatives
E300-399 Antioxidants, phosphates, and complexing agentsE400-499 Thickeners, gelling agents, phosphates, humectants, emulsifiers
E500-599 Salts and related compoundsE600-699 Flavour enhancers
E700-899 Not used for food additives (used for feed additives)E900-999 Surface coating agents, gases, sweeteners
E1000-1399 Miscellaneous additivesE1400-1499 Starch derivatives

Source of data is South African National Halaal Authority

CodeNameAlternative NameFunctionStatusSourceHealth InfoUsesOther Uses
CodeNameAlternative NameFunctionStatusSourceHealth InfoUsesOther Uses
E100Curcurmin1,7-Bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione; turmeric yellow; Diferuloylmethane; C.I. 75300ColouringHalaalVegetable extract - orange yellow colour.Health Code: Green, has many beneficial health effects, may cause skin irritation, moderately toxic by injectionCurry powder, fish fingers, margarine, confectionery, processed cheese, savoury rice
E101RiboflavinLactoflavin, Vitamin B2; Vitamin GColouringHalaalMicrobiological; SyntheticHealth Code: Green, safe in food use, has beneficial effects in the bodyBaby cereals, enriched breads, peanut butter, breakfast cerealsVitamin tablets
E101RiboflavinLactoflavin, Vitamin B2; Vitamin GColouringHalaalMicrobiological; SyntheticHealth Code: Green, safe in food use, has beneficial effects in the bodyBaby cereals, enriched breads, peanut butter, breakfast cerealsVitamin tablets
E101(a)Riboflavin-5'-phosphateRiboflavin-5-[Sodium phosphate]ColouringHalaalSoluble Riboflavin; Chemical using RiboflavinHealth Code: Green, safe in food use, has beneficial effects in the bodyBaby cereals, enriched breads, peanut butter, breakfast cerealsVitamin tablets
E102TartrazineFD&C Yellow 5; C.I. 19140; C.I. Food Yellow 4; C.I. acid yellow 23; hydrazine yellowColouringHalaalSyntheticHealth Code: Red++, Asthma, hives, dermatitis, headache, hay fever, concentration difficulties, depression, skin rash, learning difficulties, behavioural problems, swelling of lips and tongue, hyperactivity, aggressive behaviour, insomnia, confusion, anaphylaxis, aspiriConfectionery, sweet corn, cheese crackers, soft drinks, mint sauce, mint jelly, fruit juice cordial, canned peas, marzipan, pickles, brown sauce, packet dessert topping, jams, cereal, packaged soups.
E103Chrysoine ResorcinolTropaeolin O; C.I. acid orange 6; C.I. food yellow 8; C.I. 14270; Yellow T; tropeolin O; tropaeolin R; gold yellow.HalaalSynthetic Colour
E104Quinoline YellowC.I. 47005; C.I. Acid Yellow 3; D&C Yellow No. 10; Food Yellow 13ColouringHalaalSyntheticHealth Code: Red, Asthma, hives, skin rash, hyperactivity, anaphylaxis, aspirin sensitive people may wish to avoid, carcinogenicBeverages, processed foodsCosmetic dye, lipstick, soap, toothpaste, hair products, cologne
E105Fast Yellow ABTropaeolin OO; C.I. acid orange 5; diphenylamine orange; orange GS; Orange N; orange IV; acid yellow D; C.I. 13080.HalaalSynthetic chemical
E106Riboflavin-5-sodium PhosphateRiboflavin-5-Phosphate sodium salt; Vitamin B2 phosphate sodium salt.HalaalFrom riboflavin and chlorophosphoric acid
E107Yellow 2GFood Yellow 5HalaalSynthetic
E110Sunset Yellow FCFC.I. 15985; FD&C Yellow 6; C.I. Food Yellow 3ColouringHalaalSyntheticHealth Code: Red++, Asthma, hives, abdominal pain, eczema, hyperactivity, aspirin sensitive people may wish to avoid, carcinogenicFruit juice cordial, marzipan, packet soup, cereal, confectionery, dry drink powder, canned fishCosmetics, hair rinses
E1103InvertaseEC 3.2.1.26; Invertin; saccharase; sucraseProcessing aidHalaalMicrobiological from yeastHealth Code: Yellow, GM enzymes have been linked to serious health concerns and even deathConfectionery with soft centres
E1105LysozymeEC 3.2.1.17; lysozyme hydrochloride; muramidase; N-acetyl muramidase; globulin G1; DelvozymePreservativeHalaalFrom hens egg whiteHealth Code: Yellow, Chronic headaches, allergic reactionsCheese preparationCosmetics, tablets, lozenges, eye drops
E111Orange GGNAlpha-naphthol orange; Orange I; tropaeolin OOO no. 1; C.I. acid orange 20; FD&C orange 1; C.I. 14600HalaalSynthetic Chemical
E1200PolydextroseModified polydextrosesHumectant, StabiliserHalaalFrom Glucose & SorbitolHealth Code: Green, safe in food use at low levels, excess may have a laxative effect, NRCLow calories foods, yoghurt, custard powder, ice cream, confectionery
E1201PolyvinylpyrrolidonePVP; plasdone; polyvidone; Povidone; Povidone K25; povidone K17; povidone K30; povidone K90.Clarifying agent, StabiliserHalaalSynthetic Chemical.Health Code: Red, Lung and kidney damage, gas, tumours, allergic contact dermatitis in sunscreen, skin sensitisation, carcinogenicBeer, wine and vinegar manufactureHairspray and lacquers, shampoo, sunscreen
E1202PolyvinylpolypyrrolidonePVPD; crosslinked povidone; cross povidone; insoluble PVPClarifying agentHalaalSynthetic ChemicalHealth Code: Red, see Polyvinylpyrrolidone E1201Used to clarify sparkling wine and vinegarHairspray
E132Indigo CarmineIndigotine; C.I. 73015; FD&C Blue 2; Food Blue 1ColouringHalaalSynthetic ChemicalHealth Code: Red, Asthma, allergic reactions, hyperactivity, heart problems, NRC, carcinogenic, see Coal TarBottled soft drinks, sweets, biscuits, confectionery, ice cream, bakery productsHair rinses, dye in kidney function tests, tablets and capsules
E133Brilliant Blue FCFC.I. 42090; FD&C Blue 1; Food Blue 2ColouringHalaalSynthetic ChemicalHealth Code: Red++, Asthma, hives, hay fever, allergic reactions, NRC, aspirin sensitive people may wish to avoid, carcinogenicGelatine, canned processed peas, soft drinks, dairy products, cereals, cereals, dessertsToothpaste, cosmetics, hair dye, deodorant
E140ChlorophyllC.I. 75810ColouringHalaalPlants. Check if it contains alcoholHealth Code: Green, safe in food use, cancause a sensitivity to lightSoups, sauces, olive oil, soybean oilAntiperspirant, deodorant, mouthwash
E1400DextrinPyrodextrin; torrefaction dextrinHalaalHydrolysis of starch
E1401Modified StarchAcid treated starch; acid modified starchHalaalSource: acid treatment of starch
E1402Alkaline Modified StarchAlkaline treated starchHalaalAlkaline treatment of starch
E1403Bleached StarchN/AHalaalStarch bleached with SO2 or sulfur dioxide
E1404Oxidised StarchN/AThickener, StabiliserHalaalFood starch oxidised with sodium hypochloriteHealth Code: Yellow, Uncertainities exist about the safety of modified starches especially in infantsCasserolemix, batter mix, confectionery
E122CarmoisineAzorubine; C.I. 14720; carmoisenColouringHalaalSynthetic; not permitted in Norway, Sweden, USA, JapanHealth Code: Red++, Asthma, hyperactivity, aspirin sensitive people may wish to avoid, animal carcinogenConfectionery, sweets, Marzipan, brown sauce, jelly crystals
E123AmaranthC.I. 16185; FD&C Red 2; C.I. Acid Red 27; Red No. 2ColouringHalaalSynthetic Chemical, not the grain. FD and C Red No2, coal tar and azo dye - not permitted in Norway or USAHealth Code: Red, Hyperactivity, hives, asthma, rhinitis, aspirin sensitive pple may wish to avoid, may affect reproduction, liver, kidneys, birth defects, carcinogenic, teratogenPacket cake mix, packet trifle mix, jelly crystals, cereal, soft drinks, blackcurrant productsLipstick, rouge and other cosmetics
E124Ponceau 4RC.I. 16255ColouringHalaalSynthetic ChemicalHealth Code: Red, Asthma, hay fever, hives, aspirin sensitive people may wish to avoid, hyperactivity, carcinogenicPacket trifle mix, jelly crystals, jam, packet cake mix, dessert toppings, tomato soup
E125Ponceau SXScarlet GN; FD&C Red No. 4; C.I. Food Red 1; C.I. 14700HalaalSynthetic Chemical
E126Ponceau 6RC.I. 16250; C.I. food red 8; Crystal ponceau 6R; Crystal scarlet; Brilliant crystal scarlet 6R; Acid Red 44HalaalSynthetic Chemical
E127ErythrosineC.I. 45430; FD&C Red 3; C.I. Food Red 14; C.I. Acid Red 51ColouringHalaalSynthetic ChemicalHealth Code: Red, Asthma, hyperactivity, learning difficulties, light sensitivity, may affect liver, heart, thyroid, reproduction, stomach, carcinogenicCanned fruit cocktail, biscuits, glace cherries, packet trifle mix, canned red cherries, mar-aschino cherries, sausage casingsToothpaste, dental disclosing tablets, rouge, medications
E128Red 2GC.I. 18050ColouringHalaalSynthetic ChemicalHealth Code: Red, Asthma, gastrointestinal symptoms, angioedema, hyperactivity, chronic hives, aspirin sensitive people may wish to avoid, carcinogenicCooked meat products, burger meats, sausages
E129Allura Red ACC.I. 16035; Food Red 17; FD&C Red 40ColouringHalaalSynthetic ChemicalHealth Code: Red, asthma, hyperactivity, allergic reactions, hay fever, hives, aspirin, sensitive people may wish to avoid, adverse reproductive effects in animals, carcinogenicPacket cake mix, packet trifle mix, jelly crystals, cereals, chocolate biscuitsCosmetics, lipstick, medications
E130Indanthrene Blue RSC.I. vat blue 4; carbon paper blue; blue O; carbanthrene blue 2R; fenan blue RSN; graphtol blue RL; medium blue; monolite fast blue 3R; indanthrene; indanthrone; pigment blue 60; or C.I. 69800HalaalSynthetic Chemical
E131Patent Blue VC.I. 42051ColouringHalaalSynthetic ChemicalHealth Code: Red, Asthma, gastrointestinal symptoms, anaphylaxis, hives, hyperactivity, allergic reaction, aspirin sensitive people may wish to avoidScotch eggs?Medical diagnostic dye
E141Copper phaeophytinsC.I. 75810; Copper complexes of Chlorophyll & ChlorophyllinsColouringHalaalChlorophyllHealth Code: Green, safe in food useSoup, sauce, natural fruits in liquid
E1410Monostarch PhosphateN/AThickener, StabiliserHalaalEsterification of food starches with phosphatesHealth Code: Yellow, Uncertainities exist about the safety of modified starches especially in infantsVarious foods
E1412Distarch PhosphateN/AThickener, StabiliserHalaalEsterification of food starches with phosphates.Health Code: Yellow, Uncertatinities exist about the safety of modified starches especially in infantsFruit pie fillings, instant puddings, instant desserts, sauces, soup mixCosmetics, water softener
E1413Phoshated Distarch PhosphateN/AThickener, StabiliserHalaalFrom E1410 & E1413Health Code: Yellow, Uncertainities exist about the safety of modified starches especially in infantsFlavoured yoghurt, ice cream, canned foods for infants
E1414Acetylated Distarch PhosphateN/AThickener, StabiliserHalaalEsterification of food starches with phosphates & acetatesHealth Code: Yellow, Uncertainities exist about the safety of modified starches especially in infantsSauce, pickles, yoghurt, dry cake mix, canned fruits, pie fillings
E142Green SAcid Brilliant Green; Food Green S; Lissamine Green; C.I. 44090ColouringHalaalSynthetic ChemicalHealth Code: Red, Hyperactivity, asthma, skin rashes, insomnia, see Coal TarCanned peas, mint sauce, packet cheesecake mixTextile industry
E1420Acetylated StarchStarch acetateThickener, Vegetable gumHalaalEsterification of food starches with acetatesHealth Code: Yellow, Uncertatinities exist about the safety of modified starches especially in infantsSauces, chutney, desserts, baked products, confectionery
E1421Acetylated StarchMonostarch AcetateHalaalStarch modified with vinyl acetate
E1422Acetylated Distarch AdipateN/AThickener, StabiliserHalaalEsterification of food starches with adipic anhydride & acetic anhydrideHealth Code: Yellow, Uncertatinities exist about the safety of modified starches especially in infantsSauces, pickles, yoghurt, dry cake, mix, canned fruits, pie fillings
E143Fast Green FCFFood green 3; FD&C Green No. 3; Green 1724; Solid Green FCF; C.I. 42053HalaalSynthetic Chemical
E1440Hydroxypropyl StarchN/AThickener, Vegetable gumHalaalEsterification of food starches with propylene oxideHealth Code: Yellow, Uncertainities exist about the safety of modified starches especially in infantsSauces, pickles, yoghurt, dry cake mix, canned fruits, pie fillings
E1442Hydroxypropyl Distarch PhosphateN/AThickener, EmulsifierHalaalEsterification of food starches with phosphates & propylene oxideHealth Code: Yellow, Uncertainities exist about the safety of modified starches especially in infantsCanned soups, frozen desserts, sauces, cake mix
E1450Starch Sodium Octenyl SuccinateSSOSThickener, StabiliserHalaalEsterification of food starches with octenyl succinic anhydrideHealth Code: Yellow, Uncertainities exist about the safety of modified starches especially in infantsEssence, salad dressing, beverage whitener
E1451Acetylated Oxidised StarchN/AThickener, StabiliserHalaalEsterification of food starches with phosphates & acetatesHealth Code: Yellow, Uncertatinities exist about the safety of modified starches especially in infantsCanned food for infants and young children, confectionery
E150Caramel Colour (Sulphite Ammonia)N/AColouringHalaalSynthetic ChemicalHealth Code: Yellow, Hyperactivity, soft to liquid stools & increased bowel movements, blood toxicity in rats, inhibits metabolism of B6 in rabbits, serious doubts exist on safetyStout, cola drinks, chocolate, gravy browning, jams, confectionery
E150(a)Caramel Colour (Plain-Spirit)N/AColouringHalaalSynthetic ChemicalHealth Code: Yellow, Gastrointestinal problems, needs to be tested for mutagenic, teratogenic, subacute and reproductive effectsBrown bread, cola drinks, chocolate, ice cream, jams, sweets
E150(b)Caramel Colour (Caustic Sulphite)N/AColouring, FlavouringHalaalSynthetic ChemicalHealth Code: Yellow, Hyperactivity, may affect liver, stomach problemsWhisky, brandy, ice cream
E150(c)Caramel Colour (Ammonia)N/AColouringHalaalSynthetic ChemicalHealth Code: Red, Hyperactivity, may affect liver, stomach, reproduction, caused convulsions in some animal tests, blood toxicity in ratsSoy sauce, oyster sauce, biscuits, jams, dark bread, pickles, chocolate, coatings
E150(d)Sulphite Ammonia CaramelHalaal
E1505Triethyl CitrateEthyl citrate; citric acid ethyl ester.Thickener, SequestrantHalaalTriethyl ester of citric acidHealth Code: Green, Can provoke symptoms in those who react to MSG, citrates may interfere with the results of laboratory tests for blood, liver and pancreatic functionProcessed egg whites, smoke flavourNail polish, perfume base
E151Black PNBrilliant Black PN; C.I. 28440ColouringHalaalSynthetic ChemicalHealth Code: Red++, asthma, hyperactivity, may affect kidneys, stomach, NRC, carcinogenicBlackcurrant cake mix, brown sauce, eggnog, drinking yoghurt
E1519Benzyl AlcoholBenzenemethanol; phenylcarbinol; phenylmethanol; alpha-hydroxy tolueneHalaalSynthetic Chemical
E152Black 7984Food Black 2; C.I. 27755HalaalSynthetic Chemical
E1520Propylene Glycol1,2-Propanediol; methyl glycol; 1,2-dihydroxypropane; Propan-1,2-diolHumectant, SolventHalaalSynthetic ChemicalHealth Code: Red, Contact dermatitis, lactic acidosis, dry skin, respiratory, immuno- and neurotoxicity, CNS depression and kidney damage in animalsConfectionery, baked goods, chocolate products, sweetened coconut, toppingsSuntan lotion, toothpaste, lipstick, baby lotion, pesticides, antifreeze
E154Brown FKKipper Brown; Food BrownColouringHalaalixture of synthetic dyesHealth Code: Red++, Asthma, allergic reactions, hives, may affect heart, kidneys, liver, thyroid, aspirin sensitive people may wish to avoid, NRCKippers, smoked and cured fish, cooked ham, potato chips
E155Brown HTC.I. 20285; Chocolate Brown HTColouringHalaalMixture of synthetic dyesHealth Code: Red++, Asthma, allergic reactions, hives, may affect heart, kidneys, NRC, aspirin sensitive people may wish to avoid, NRCChocolate cake mix, chocolate biscuits
E160(a)Beta-CaroteneCarotaben; Provatene; SolateneColouringHalaalCarrotsHealth Code: Green, safe in food use at low levelsMargarine, dairy blend, reduced fat spread, cakes, jams, cheeseCosmetics, animal feed, cigarettes
E160(b)AnnattoBixin; Norbixin; C.I. 75120; Orlean; RocouColouringHalaalVegetable DyeHealth Code: Red, Anatto may cause irritability and head banging in children, hives, hypotension, pruritis, bixin and norbixin, under-going toxicity testingMargarine, baked goods, reduced fat spreads, dairy products, breakfast cerealsFabric dye, soap, varnish, body paints
E160(c)CapsanthinCapsorubin; Paprika extract; OleoresinColouringHalaalRed PepperHealth Code: Green, safe in food use, may have beneficial effectsCheese slices, chicken pies, condiments, soupPoultry feed
E160(d)LycopeneC.I. 75125ColouringHalaalTomato ExtractHealth Code: Green, safe in food use, may have beneficial effects on bodyNutritional bars, soups, yoghurt, beverages
E160(e)beta-apo-8-carotenalC30; beta-8-apocarotenalColouringHalaalSynthetic ChemicalHealth Code: Green, safe in food useCream cheese spread, cheese slices, processed cheese
E160(f)beta apo-8-carotenoic acid ethyl esterN/AColouringHalaalSynthetic ChemicalHealth Code: Green, safe in food useProcessed foods
E161(a)FlavoxanthinC.I. 75135HalaalExtracted from food; check if it contains oils & fats
E161(b)LuteinXanthophyll; C.I. 75135; vegetable luteol; beta-eta-carotene-3,3-diolColouringHalaalEgg yolk; nettles; algae; & petals of yellow flowersHealth Code: Green, safe in food use at low levelsProcessed foodsAnimal and poultry feed
E161(c)CryptoxanthinC.I. 75135; cryptoxanthol; caricaxanthin; hydroxy-beta-carotene; beta-carotene-3-ol.ColouringHalaalPetals & BerriesHealth Code: Green, safe in food use, may have beneficial effectsCheese slices, chicken pies, condiments, soupPoultry feed
E161(d)RubixanthinC.I. 75135;HalaalHipberries & Flowers
E161(e)ViolaxanthinVioloxanthin; zeanthin diepoxide; C.I. 75315.HalaalYellow Pansies
E161(f)RhodoxanthinC.I. 75135HalaalYew Seeds
E161hZeaxanthinZeaxanthol; anchovyxanthin; §,§-carotene-3,3'-diolHalaalVegatable and mainly Marigold flowers
E161iCitranaxanthinN/AHalaalSynthetic Chemical
E161jAstaxanthinOvoester; astaxanthineHalaalMicroalgae
E162Beetroot RedBetanin; BetanidinColouringHalaalBeetroot extractHealth Code: Green, safe in food use, contains nitrates so NRCDesserts, jellies, jams, liquorice, sweetsCosmetics
E163AnthocyaninsSchultz 1394; Schultz 1400ColouringHalaalgrape skin; red cabbageHealth Code: Green, safe in food use, considered to have protective effects in the bodySoft drinks, jams, ice cream, wines, yoghurt, sweets, preservesVitamin tablets
E170Calcium CarbonateCarbonic acid calcium salt; KulubriteColouring, Firming AgentHalaalminerals argonite, calcite & vateriteHealth Code: Green, safe in food use at low levels, excess can cause abdominal pain, constipationBread, biscuits, confectionery, ice cream, cakes, sweets, canned fruit and vegetablesCosmetics, face powder, bleaches, vitamin tablets, cigarettes
E171Titanium DioxideC.I. 77891; UnitaneColouring, OpacifierHalaalMineralHealth Code: Yellow, safe in food use, skin contact can cause irritation, limited evidence of cancer in animal studies, see NanoparticlesPan sugar coated confectionery, sweets, chewing gum, icing sugar, jam, jelliesBath powder, face powder, ointment, sunscreen, marker ink, paints
E172Iron Oxides & Iron HydroxidesC.I. 77492 (yellow/brown); C.I. 77491 (red); C.I. 77499 (brown)ColouringHalaalMineralHealth Code: Yellow, Iron is potentially toxic in all forms, excess can lead to increased risk of numerous health conditionsSalmon and shrimp paste or spread, cake and dessert mixes, meat pastePet foods, dying egg shells, face powder, eye make-up
E173AluminiumC.I. 77000; AluminumColouringHalaalMineralHealth Code: Red, Ingestion or inhalation can aggravate kidney & lung disorders, cardiovascular, reproductive and neurotoxicity, evidence of a link with Alzheimer's, European Parliament said aluminium additives should be bannedExternal decoration on cakes, etcCosmetics, cooking pots and pans, antiperspirant, silver finish to pills and tablets
E174SilverC.I. 77820;ColouringHalaalMineralHealth Code: Yellow, Toxic in very large doses, should not be consumed, accumulates in tissues, argyria (blue grey skin), kidney damageExternal decoration on cakes, silver dragees, silver coloured almondsCosmetics, nail polish
E175GoldC.I. 77480ColouringHalaalMineralHealth Code: Green, safe in food use, rare allergic reactions, neutrotoxicityExternal decoration on chocolate confectioneryCosmetics
E180Pigment RubineLithol Rubine BK; C.I. 15850ColouringHalaalSynthetic ChemicalHealth Code: Red, Asthma, hives, hay fever, gastrointestinal symptoms, insomnia, hyperactivityRind on hard cheeses such as EdamCosmetics, pharamaceutical preparations
E181TanninTannic acid; gallotannin; gallotannic acidHalaalfrom nutgall
E200Sorbic Acid2,4-Hexadienoic acid; 2-propenyl-acrylic acidPreservative, HumectantHalaalBerries; SyntheticallyHealth Code: Yellow, Allergic reactions, asthma, contact dermatitis, erythema, skin irritation, behavioural problemsFrozen pizza, pie fillings, cheese, cheesecake, cheese spread, chocolate syrupCosmetics, mouthwash, toothpaste, ointments, dental cream
E201Sodium SorbateN/AHalaalSorbic Acid
E202Potassium SorbateSorbic acid potassium salt; BB powderPreservativeHalaalSorbic AcidHealth Code: Yellow, Allergic reactions, asthma, skin irritation, behavioural problemsBread, cheese, baked goods, cheese cake, wine making, chocolateCosmetics, cigarettes
E203Calcium SorbateN/APreservativeHalaalSorbic AcidHealth Code: Yellow, Contact hives, skin irritation, asthma, allergic reactions, behavioural problemsBread, cheese spread, cottage cheese, soft drinks, chocolate syrup, cheesecakeOintments, cosmetics
E210Benzoic acidBenzene carboxylic acid; phenylformic acid; dracyclic acidPreservative, FlavoringHalaalSyntheticHealth Code: Red++, Asthma, hives, behavioural problems, hyperactivity, may affect lungs, eye and skin irritation, aspirin sensitive people may wish to avoid, neurotoxicityBrewed soft drinks, cider, non-dairy dip, chewing gum, fruit juice, margarine, ice creamCosmetics, hair rinse, skin cleanser, perfume, pharmaceuticals
E211Sodium BenzoateN/APreservativeHalaalSynthesis from Benzoic AcidHealth Code: Red, Asthma, hives, contact dermatitis, hay fever, mouth and skin irritation, hyperactivity, anaphylaxis, aspirin sensitive people may wish to avoidBottled soft drinks, fruit juice, jams, pickles, condiments, baked goods, tomato pasteToothpaste, eye cream, medical diagnostic aid for liver function
E212Potassium BenzoateBenzoic acid potassium salt trihydratePreservativeHalaalBenzoic AcidHealth Code: Red, Asthma, hives, eczema, allergic reactions, gastric irritation, aspirin sensitive people may wish to avoidLow joule jams and spreads, chilli paste, glkace cherriesCosmetics
E213Calcium BenzoateBenzoic acid calcium salt trihydratePreservativeHalaalBenzoic AcidHealth Code: Red, Asthma, hives, anaphylaxis, hyperactivity, behavioural problems, eczema, aspirin sensitive people may wish to avoid, NRCBrewed soft drinks, non-dairy dip, chewing gum, fruit juice, margarine, ice cream
E214Ethyl 4-hydroxybenzoateEthyl para-hydroxybenzoate; EthylparabenPreservativeHalaalBenzoic AcidHealth Code: Red, Asthma, hives, allergic reactions, skin redness, itching and swelling, anaphylaxisBrewed soft drinks, ice cream, cider non-dairy dip, chewing gum, fruit juice, margarineCosmetic products
E215Ethyl 4-hydroxybenzoate sodium saltSodium ethyl para-hydroybenzoatePreservativeHalaalBenzoic AcidHealth Code: Red, Asthma, numbness in the mouth, hives, gastric irritation, allergic contact demartitis, aspirin sensitive people may wish to avoid
E216Propyl 4-hydroxybenzoatepropylparaben; n-propyl p-hydroxybenzoate; propyl para-hydroxybenzoatePreservativeHalaalbenzoic acidHealth Code: Red, Asthma, hives, allergic reactions, skin redness, itching and swelling, anaphylaxisBeverages, baked goods, sweets, jellies, preserves, fruit flavouringsCosmetics, shampoo, foundation cream
E217Propyl 4-hydroxybenzoate sodium saltSodium n-propyl p-hydroxybenzoate; Sodium propyl para-hydroxybenzoatePreservativeHalaalsynthetic chemicalHealth Code: Red, Asthma, hives, numbness in the mouth, gastric irritation, allergic contact dermatitis, aspirin sensitive people may wish to avoid
E218Methyl 4-hydroxybenzoateMethyl paraben; Methyl para-hydroxybenzoatePreservativeHalaalsynthetic chemicalHealth Code: Red, Asthma, hives, allergic reactions, skin redness, itching and swelling, anaphylaxisJellies, preserves, jams, baked goods, fruit juices, salad dressingsCosmetics, skin and hair care products
E219Methyl 4-hydroxybenzoate sodium saltSodium methyl para-hydroxybenzoate; Sodium methyl hydroxybenzoatePreservativeHalaalSynthetic ChemicalHealth Code: Red, Asthma, hives, allergic reactions, skin redness, itching and swelling, anaphylaxis
E220Sulphur DioxideSulfur dioxide; Sulfurous anhydride; sulfurous oxidePreservativeHalaalSynthetic ChemicalHealth Code: Red, Asthma, broncho spasm, bronchoconstriction, hypotension, anaphylaxis, bronchitis, destroys vitamins A and B1 in food, animal mutagenDried fruit, beer, cider, fruit juice, gelatine, wines, pickles, soft drinks, dessicated coconut, vinegar
E221Sodium SulphiteN/APreservativeHalaalSynthetic from sulphurous acidHealth Code: Red, Asthma, gastric irritation, skin rash, nausea, diarrhoea, destroys vitamin B content in food, those with poor liver or kidney function should avoidCut fruits, dried fruit, maraschino, cherries, prepared fruit pie mix, frozen apples
E222Sodium Hydrogen SulphiteSodium bisulphite; acid sodium sulphitePreservativeHalaalFrom sulphurous acidHealth Code: Red, Bronchial asthma, chronic hives, skin irritation, mutagenicTomato paste, dried fruit, jams, jellies, fruit juicesMouthwash, hair dye, wart remover
E223Sodium MetabisulphiteDisodium pyrosulphite; sodium pyrosulphitePreservativeHalaalSynthetic from sulphurous acidHealth Code: Red, Asthma (life threatening attacks), hay fever, chronic hives, atopic dermatitis, harmful to aquatic organismsBread and flour products, jellies, dried fruits, tomato paste, maraschino cherriesHair products, bath preparations, underarm deodorant
E224Potassium metabisulphitePotassium pyrosulphitePreservative, AntioxidantHalaalHealth Code: Red, Asthma, hives, behavioural problems, gastric irritation, anaphylaxisCheese and cheese products, home wine brewing kitsBleaching straw
E225Sodium SulfiteSodium Sulphite; Sulfurous acid, disodium salt; Disodium sulfite.HalaalSynthetic Chemical
E226Calcium SulphiteN/APreservative, Firming agentHalaalFrom sulphurous acidHealth Code: Red, Asthma, skin irritation, gastric irritation, may affect kidneys, gastro-intestinal tract and liverCanned fruits and vegetablesDisinfectant, home wine brewing
E227Calcium Hydrogen SulphiteCalcium bisulphite solutionPreservative, Firming agentHalaalFrom sulphurous acidHealth Code: Red, Asthma, gastric irritation, may affect liver, kidneys, lungs, stomachCanned fruits and vegetables
E228Potassium Hydrogen SulphiteN/APreservativeHalaalynthetic chemicalHealth Code: Red, Asthma, skin reactions, anaphylaxis, gastric irritation, hyperactivityLow joule jam, dried fruits
E230BiphenylDiphenyl; 1,1-Biphenyl; bibenzene; phenylbenzeneAntifungal preservativeHalaalSynthetic ChemicalHealth Code: Red++, Exposure can cause eye and nasal irritation, vomiting, nausea, CNS depression, liver, kidney, respiratory, cardiovascular and neurotixicityUsed to fumigate some fruits (residue on fruit skins), food wrapped in paper impregnated with diphenyl, citrus peel, marmalade
E2312-Hydroxybiphenylo-Phenylphenol; orthophenylphenol; (1,1-Biphenyl)-2-ol; 2-biphenylol; orthoxenolPreservativeHalaalSynthetic ChemicalHealth Code: Red, Nausea, convulsions, vomiting, circulatory collapse, respiratory failure, cardiac arrest, coma, carcinogenicUsed in the manufacture of many food additives
E232Sodium biphenyl-2-yl oxideSodium O-phenylphenol; Sodium orthophenylphenate; (trihydrate)Preservative, AntifungalHalaalSynthetic ChemicalHealth Code: Red, Vomiting, convulsions, irritation of nose and eyes, depigmentation, photosensitiserSprayed onto fruit skins, products containing fruit skins, marmaladeCosmetics, detergents, cooling fluids
E2332-(Thiazol-4-yl) benzimidazoleThiabendazole; Omnizole; Thiaben; TribendazoleHalaalSynthetic Chemical
E234NisinN/APreservative, AntimicrobialHalaalBiosyntheticHealth Code: Yellow, The European parliament said in 2003 that it should not be used as it could cause antibiotic resistance in humansProcessed cheese, canned vegetables and fruit, semolina and tapioca puddings
E235NatamycinPimiricin; antibiotic A 5283; tennecetin; CL 12625PreservativeHalaalMicrobiological SynthesisHealth Code: Red, Moderately toxic by ingestion, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, anorexia, mild skin irritationCured processed meats, cheese rindDrug used to treat fungal infections of the eyes and eyelids
E236Formic AcidMethanoic Acid; AmeisensaureHalaalSynthetic Chemical
E237Sodium FormateSodium formiate; formic acid sodium saltHalaalFrom formic acid
E238Calcium FormateCalcium formiate; formic acid calcium saltHalaalfrom formic acid
E239HexamineHexamethylenetetramine; Methenamine; HMT; HMTAPreservativeHalaalSynthetic ChemicalHealth Code: Red, Contact dermatitis, gastrointestinal upset, kidney damage, genetic mutation in animals, suspected carcinogenProvolone cheeseCosmetics, adhesives, coatings lubricating oils
E240FormaldehydeMethanal; oxomethane; oxymethylene; methylene oxide; formic aldehyde; methyl aldehydeHalaalSynthetic Chemical
E242Dimethyl DicarbonateDicarbonic acid; dimethyl ester; dimethyl polycarbonate; VelcorinPreservative, FungicideHalaalSynthetic ChemicalHealth Code: Green, safe in food useSport drinks, fruit drinks, instant teasYeast inhibitor in wine
E249Potassium NitriteN/APreservative, Colour fixativeHalaalFrom nitrous acidHealth Code: Red, Asthma, kidney inflamation, behavioural problems, dizziness, headache, may form nitrosamines, not permitted in foods for babies under 6 months, inhibits oxygen in the blood, carcinogenicCorned, cured, pickled, manufactured and pressed meats
E250Sodium NitriteNitrous acid sodium salt; erinitritPreservativeHalaalSynthetic from sodium nitrateHealth Code: Red, Nausea, headaches, dizziness, not permitted in foods for babies less than 6 months, toxic to aquatic organismsCanned, cured, manufactured and pressed meats, sausages, baconAnticorrosive in some cosmetics
E251Sodium NitrateChile saltpetre; cubic niter;soda niterPreservativeHalaalMineralHealth Code: Red, Nausea, vomiting, dizziness, headaches, migraine, may affect thyroid gland, not permitted in foods for babies less than 6 monthsManufactured meats
E260Acetic AcidAcetic acid glacial; Aci-JelFood Acid ButterHalaalSyntheticHealth Code: Green, regarded as safe in food use, skin irritation,, hives, skin rash, caused cancer in rats and mice orally and by injection, harmful to aquatic organismsPickles, chutney, cheese, baked goods, saucesAnimal feeds, hair dye, hand lotion, cigarettes
E261Potassium AcetateN/AAcidity Regulator, PreservativeHalaalAcetic AcidHealth Code: Green, People with impaired kidney function or cardiac disease may wish to avoidPickles, salad cream, chutney, cheese, brown sauce, fruit sauceDiuretic
E262Sodium Hydrogen DiacetateSodium Acid Acetate (anhydrous / trihydrate); sodium diacetateAcidity Regulator, PreservativeHalaalAcetic acid & sodium acetateHealth Code: Green, safe in food use, skin and eye irritation, moderate toxicity by ingestionSweets, jams, jellies, soup mixes, snack foods, cerealsCosmetics, textiles, photographic and dye processes
E263Calcium AcetateBrown acetate of lime; gray acetate of limeFood Acid, Firming agentHalaalFrom acetic acidHealth Code: Green, safe in food use, low oral toxicityBread, pickles, beer, ale, cheese, salad creamDyeing and curing skins, cosmetic fragrance
E264Ammonium AcetateAcetic acid ammonium saltHalaalSynthetic Chemical
E270Lactic AcidD-Lactic acid; DL-Lactic acid; 2-Hydroxypropanoic acid; racemic lactic acidFood acid, PreservativeHalaalFruit / seeds; carbohydratesHealth Code: Green, safe in food use. In cosmetics stinging of the skin in sensitive people, not recommended for babies under 3 monthsInfant formula, salad dressings, confectionery, soft drinks, tartare sauceCosmetics, skin freshners, cigarettes
E280Propionic AcidPropanoic acid; Methylacetic acid; ethylformic acidPreservativeHalaalSynthetic chemical; from wood pulpHealth Code: Yellow, Migraines, skin irritation, headaches, hamful to aquatic organismsIce cream, baked goods, sweets, processed cheesesBakery use
E281Sodium PropionatePropionic acid sodium saltPreservativeHalaalFrom propionic acidHealth Code: Yellow, Behavioural problems, skin irritation, learning difficulties, asthma, gastric irritation, headache, migraines see Calcium Propionate E282]Confectionery, baked goods, frostings, cakesCosmetics, medical treatment of fungal infections of the skin
E282Calcium PropionatePropionic acid calcium saltMould inhibitor, PreservativeHalaalFrom propionic acidHealth Code: Yellow, Irritability, asthma, migraine, fatigue, learning difficulties, aggression, gastric irritation, headaches, sensitivity to propionates occurs in conjunction with sensitivity to other chemicalsBread, processed cheese, poultry stuffing, chocolate productsCosmetics, antifungal medication
E283Potassium PropionatePropionic acid potassium saltPreservativeHalaalFrom propionic acidHealth Code: Green, Asthma, learning difficulties, headache, behabioural problems, migraine, see also Calcium Propionate E282Bread, biscuits, cakes, pastries and other flour productsCosmetics
E284Boric AcidBoracic acid; orthoboric acidPreservative, Oral care agentHalaalNatural mineralHealth Code: Red++, Severe poisonings have occured after ingestion or application to abraded skin, kidney, cardiovascular, reproductive, liver and neurotoxicityCavier, fungus control on citrus fruitsBaby powder, bath powder, soap, eye cream, mouthwash, cosmetics
E285Sodium TetraborateBorax; sodium borate; sodium biboratePreservativeHalaalMineralHealth Code: Red, Toxic, rarely used with foods, chronic exposure can cause red peeling skin, seizures and kidney failureMeats imported from the USA?Shaving cream, cold cream, foundation cream, insecticides
E296Malic AcidDL-Malic acid; Hydroxybutanedioic acid; hydroxysuccinic acid; apple acid; 2-hydroxy-1,4-butanedioic acidHalaalAcidity Regulator, AntioxidantSynthetic; microbiologicalHealth Code: Green, safe in food use, skin and mucous membrane irritation, may aggravate herpes simplex symptomsSweetened coconut, tinned oxtail soup, low calorie softdrinks, wines
E297Fumaric Acid(E)-2-Butadioic acid; allomaleic acid; boletic acidFood acid, AntioxidantHalaalBiosyntheticHealth Code: Green, safe in food useBrewed soft drinks, confections, packet cheesecake mixCosmetics
E300Vitamin CL-Ascorbic acid; Ascorbic acidPreservative AntioxidantHalaalBiosyntheticHealth Code: Green, safe in foods. vitamin c has many beneficial health effects, excessive consumption can cause skin rashes, painful urination and diarrhoeaConfectionery, breakfast cereals, pressed meats, corned meatCosmetic cream, hair dye, hair conditioner
E301Vitamin C SodiumSodium L-Ascorbate; Sodium L-(+)-ascorbateAntioxidantHalaalFrom Vitamin CHealth Code: Green, safe in food useFoods for infants, frozen fish, wine, vinegar, beerCosmetics
E302Vitamin C CalciumCalcium ascorbate; Calcium L-ascorbatePreservative, AntioxidantHalaalSynthetic ChemicalHealth Code: Green, safe in food use at low levelsConcentrated milk products, cooked and cured meat products
E303Potassium AscorbateAscorbic acid potassium saltHalaalfrom ascorbic acid
E3046-o-Palmitoyl-L-ascorbic AcidAscorbyl palmitateAntioxidant PreservativeHalaalSynthetic ChemicalHealth Code: Green, safe in food useDairy blend, salad oil, instant mashed potato, reduced fat spread
E306Vitamin E Oil ExtractsSoya bean oil; wheat germ oil; rice germ oil; cottonseed oil; maize oil; green leaves oilAntioxidantHalaalExtracts of natural (vegetable) origin rich in tocopherols (vitamin E).Health Code: Green, safe in food use, may be destroyed by freezingDairy blend, margarine, salad oil, reduced fat spreadDeodorant, baby preparations, supplements
E307Alpha-TocopherolVitamin E; DL-alpha-tocopherolAntioxidant NutrientHalaalSynthetic chemicalHealth Code: Green, safe in food use, may be destroyed by freezingWhite flour, white bread, white rice, margarine
E308Gamma-TocopherolVitamin E; DL-gamma-tocopherolAntioxidantHalaalSynthetic chemicalHealth Code: Green, This type of Vitamin E has been shown to plasy several protective roles in the bodyDairy blend, salad oil, margarine, reduced fat spread
E309Delta-TocopherolVitamin E; DL-delta-tocopherolAntioxidantHalaalSynthetic chemical.Health Code: Green, Vitamin E has been shown to play protective roles in the bodySalad oil, reduced fat spread, dairy blend, margarine
E310Propyl GallatePropyl 3,4,5 trihydroxybenzoateAntioxidantHalaalsynthesised from gallic acid which is produced from tannins extracted from nut galls or synthesised microbiologicallyHealth Code: Yellow, Asthma, contact demartitis, gastric irritation, aspirin sensitive people may wish to avoid, not permitted in foods for babies and young childrenDairy blend, edible fats and oils, reduced fat spread, chewing gum, margarine, salad oil, peanut, butterCosmetic cream and lotion
E311Octyl GallateN/AAntioxidantHalaalSynthesised from gallic acid which is produced from tannins extracted from nut galls or synthesised microbiologicallyHealth Code: Yellow, Mildly toxic by ingestion,allergic reactions, gastric irritation, aspirin sensitive people may wish to avoidEdible fats and oils, reduced fat spread, margarine, dripping, salad oil
E312Dodecyl gallateDodecyl 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate.AntioxidantHalaalSynthesised from gallic acid which is produced from tannins extracted from nut galls or synthesised microbiologicallyHealth Code: Yellow, Allergic reactions, NRC, contact dermatitis, gastric irritation, aspirin sensitive people may wish to avoid, caused pathological changes in the spleen, kidneys and liver in test ratsDairy blend, edible fats and oils, reduced fat spread, margarineCosmetic cream, ink
E315Erythorbic AcidIsoascorbic acid; isovitamin C; saccharosonic acid; glucosaccharosonic acidAntioxidant, PreservativeHalaalSynthetic chemicalHealth Code: Green, May cause allergic reactions in some people, has only 5% of the vitamin capacity of ascorbic acidBreakfast cereal, beverages, flour products, confectionery, pressed meat productsCosmetics
E316Sodium ErythorbateIsoascorbic acid sodium salt; Mercate 20; Neo-CebitateAntioxidantHalaalSynthetic chemicalHealth Code: Green, safe in food use, has not been studied for mutagenic and teratogenic effectsCider, frozen fruit, meat products, baked goods, beveragesCosmetics, water softener, detergent
E317Erythorbin AcidErythorbic acidHalaalSame chemical as erythorbic acid (manufactured from sucrose)
E318Sodium ErythorbinErythorbin acid sodium saltHalaalfrom erythorbin
E319tert-ButylhydroxyquinoneTBHQHalaalsynthetic chemical
E320Butylated HydroxyanisoleBHA; Antracine 12Antioxidant PreservativeHalaalsynthetic chemicalHealth Code: Red, Hives, somnolence, hay fever, headache, wheezing, fatigue, asthma, NRC, may affect kidneys, liver, thyroid, stomach, reproduction, hormone disruption, carcinogenic, teratogenInstant mashed potato, edible fats and oils, chewing gum, reduced fat spread, margarine, processed meats, ice creamCosmetics
E321Butylated HydroxytolueneBHT; Antracine 8; 2,6-di-ter-butyl-p-cresolAntioxidant PreservativeHalaalsynthetic chemicalHealth Code: Red++, Chronic hives, demartitis, fatigue, asthma, aggressive behaviour, bronchospasm, NRC, may affect reproduction, kidneys, stomach, liver, harmful to aquatic organismsEdible fats and oils, chewing gum, fish products, dry breakfast cereals, beer and malt drinks, polyethylene film for wrapping foodShaving cream, baby oil, baby lotion, lipstick, eyeliner, packaging materials, rubber, jet fuel
E322LecithinPhosphatidylcholine; LecitholStabiliser, EmulsifierHalaalSoybean (mainly); Eggs; Leguminous seedsHealth Code: Green, safe in food use, people with allergy to soy may wish to avoidChocolate, dried milk, margarine, dessert mix, confectioneryCosmetics, lipstick, hand cream, pharmaceuticals
E325Sodium LactateLactic acid sodium salt; L-sodium lactate; Purasal SHumectant, Bulking agentHalaalsynthesised from lactic acidHealth Code: Green, safe in food use, people with lactose intolerance may wish to avoidBiscuits, uncured hamsMoisturiser, skin and hair products
E326Potassium LactateLactic acid potassium saltAcidity Regulator, HumectantHalaalsynthesised from lactic acidHealth Code: Green, safe in food use, people with lactose intolerance may wish to avoidBiscuits, cheese confectionery, foods for infants
E327Calcium LactateLactic acid calcium saltFood acid, BufferHalaalSynthesised from lactic acidHealth Code: Yellow, safe in food use, may cause cardiac and gastro-intestinal disturbance, people with lactose intolerance may wish to avoidConfectionery, baking powder, canned bean sprouts, condensed milkOral menstrual drug products? (unsafe), dentifrices, animal feeds
E329Magnesium Lactatelactic acid magnesium saltHalaalfrom lactic acid (biofermentation of starch)
E330Citric AcidCitric Acid Monohydrate; Citric Acid Anhydrous; B-hydroxytricarballic acid; 2-hydroxy-1,2,3,-propane tricarboxylic acidAcidity Regulator, FlavouringHalaalmicrobiological fermentation; citrus fruits; pineapple wasteHealth Code: Yellow, safe in food use, has a number of health benefits, may provoke symptoms in those who react to MSG, may aggravate the herpes simplex virus, in cosmetic use it may cause exfoliative dermatitis, eye and skin irritationBiscuits, cheese, ice cream, jams, jellies, processed cheese, soft drinks, fruit drinks, infant formulaFreckle cream, eye lotion, nail bleaches, skin freshners, hair rinses
E331Sodium CitrateCitric acid sodium saltAcidity Regulator, EmulsifierHalaalsynthesised from citric acidHealth Code: Green, Can provoke symptoms in those who react to MSG, may alter urinary excretion of some drugs making them either less effective or more potentInfant formula, cottage cheese, ice cream, evaporated milk, jams, preserves, fruit jelliesCosmetics
E331(a)Sodium Dihydrogen CitrateMonosodium citrateHalaalsynthesised from citric acid
E331(b)Disodium CitrateCitric acid disodium saltHalaalsynthesised from citric acid
E331(c)Trisodium CitrateCitric acid trisodium salt; citrosodineHalaalsynthesised from citric acid
E332Potassium Dihydrogen CitrateCitric acid monopotassium salt. Monopotassium citrate. Tripotassium citrate; potassium citrateAcidity Regulator, StabiliserHalaalsynthesised from citric acidHealth Code: Green, May provoke symptoms in those who react to MSG, may interfere with the results of laboratory tests for pancreatic, blood and liver functionConfectionery, jellies, preserves
E333Calcium Citratemono- di- & triCalcium citrateFood acid, ButterHalaalsynthesised from citric acidHealth Code: Green, may provoke symptoms in those who react to MSG, citrates may interfere with the results of laboratory tests for blood, liver and pancreatic functionConfectionery, jellies, jams, to improve baking properties in flour
E338Phosphoric acidOrthophosphoric acidAcidity RegulatorHalaalphosphate oreHealth Code: Yellow, safe in food use at low levels, excess may lead to tooth erosion and calcium loss in bonesCheese products, soft drinks, jellies, sweets
E339(a)Sodium dihydrogen orthophosphateN/AHalaalphosphoric acid
E339(b)diSodium hydrogen orthophosphateN/AHalaalsynthesised from phosphoric acid
E339(c)triSodium hydrogen orthophosphateN/AHalaalsynthesised from phosphoric acid
E340(a)Potassium dihydrogen orthophosphatemonopotassium phosphate; MKPHalaalsynthesised from phosphoric acid
E340(b)diPotassium hydrogen orthophosphatedipotassium phosphate; DKP; potassium phosphate dibasicHalaalsynthesised from phosphoric acid
E340(c)triPotassium orthophosphatedipotassium phosphate; DKP; potassium phosphate tribasic; tripotassium monophosphateHalaalSynthesised from phosphoric acid
E341(a)Calcium Tetrahydrogen Diorthophosphatemonocalcium phosphate; MCP; acid calcium phosphate; ACP; monocalcium orthophosphate; monobasic calcium phosphate; calcium biphosphate; calcium hydrogen phosphate.Halaalsynthesised from phosphoric acid
E341(b)Calcium Hydrogen Orthophosphatedicalcium phosphate; DCP; calcium phosphate dibasic; calcium hydrogen phosphate; secondary calcium phosphateHalaalsynthesised from phosphoric acid
E341(c)triCalcium diorthophosphatetricalcium phosphate; calcium phosphate tribasicHalaalsynthesised from calcium phosphate
E343Monomagnesium PhosphateN/AAnticaking AgentHalaalsynthesisedHealth Code: Green, safe in food useDried milk, milk powderDietary supplement
E350Sodium MalateMalic acid sodium salt; Sodium hydrogen malateAcidity Regulator, HumectantHalaalfrom malic acidHealth Code: Green, safe in food useFruit drink, soft drinks, sweetened coconutAnti-aging products
E351Potassium Malatemalic acid potassium saltAcidity RegulatorHalaalfrom malic acidHealth Code: Green, safe in food useFruit drinks, soft drinks, sweetened coconut
E352Calcium Malatemalic acid calcium salt; Calcium hydrogen malateBuffer Firming agentHalaalfrom malic acidHealth Code: Green, safe in food useFruit drinks, soft drinks, sweetened coconut
E355Adipic AcidHexanedioic acidRaising Agent BufferHalaalSynthetic chemicalHealth Code: Yellow, Regard as safe in food use at low levels, moderately toxic by ingestion, toxic effects in rats including death, teratogenicBeverages, baked goods, oils, snack foods, processed cheeseManufacture of plastics and nylons
E356Sodium AdipateAdipic acid sodium saltAcidity Regulator, Firming agentHalaalsynthetic chemicalHealth Code: Green, safe in food useBeverages, baked goods, processed cheese, snack foods
E357Potassium AdipateAdipic acid potassium saltAcidity Regulator, BufferHalaalsynthetic chemicalHealth Code: Green, see Adipic Acid E355Low salt foodsBoiler water
E363Succinic AcidN/AFlavour enhancer, Acidity regulatorHalaalsynthetic chemicalHealth Code: Green, safe in food use at low levels, excess can cause vomitting and diarrhoesSalt substituteCosmetics, inks, perfume, lacquers, oaint, mouthwash
E365Sodium Fumaratemonosodium fumarate; fumaric acid sodium saltHalaalfrom fumaric acid (biosynthetic)
E366Potassium Fumaratefumaric acid potassium saltHalaalfrom fumaric acid (biosynthetic)
E367Calcium Fumaratefumaric acid calcium saltHalaalfrom fumaric acid (biosynthetic)
E3701,4-HeptonolactoneN/AHalaalsynthetic chemical
E375Nicotinic AcidNiacinHalaalsynthetic from nicotine
E380triAmmonium Citratecitric acid triammonium salt; ammonium citrate tribasicAcidity RegulatorHalaalfrom citric acidHealth Code: Green, May provoke symptoms in those who react to MSGWide variety of foods including processed cheese, cheese spread
E381Ammonium Ferric CitrateFerric ammonium citrate; ammonium ferric citrate greenHalaalfrom citric acid
E385Calcium Disodium EDTACalcium Disodium Edetate; Calcium Disodium ethylenediamine NNNN tetra-acetatePreservative, SequestrantHalaalsynthetic chemicalHealth Code: Red, Muscle cramps, blood in the urine, intestinal upset, kidney damage, mineral imbalance, chromosome damage, can increase uptake of heavy metals, may affect liver and reproductionDressings, soft drinks, sandwich spreads, beer, ale, margarine, instant teasUsed medically to detoxify heavy metal poisoning
E400Alginic AcidNorgine; polymannuronic acid; SazioThickener, Vegetable gumHalaalfrom seaweedsHealth Code: Green, safe in foods at low levels, alginates inhibited absorption of essential nutrients in some animal testsIce cream, dessert mix, custard mix, flavoured milk, cordials, infant formula, yoghurtCosmetics and textiles
E401Sodium AlginateAlginic acid sodium salt; Algin; Sodium polymannuronateThickener, StabiliserHalaalfrom brown seaweedsHealth Code: Green, Alginates may have beneficial effects on health, they inhibited absorption of essential nutrients in animal testsFrozen desserts, jams, fruit jelly preservesBaby lotion, wave sets, shaving cream
E402Potassium AlginatePotassium polymannuronate; alginic acid potassium saltThickener, StabiliserHalaalfrom alginic acidHealth Code: Green, Alginates may have beneficial effects on health, they inhibited absorption of essential nutrients in animal testsIce cream, yoghurt, custard mix
E403Ammonium Alginatealginic acid ammonium saltThickener, StabiliserHalaalfrom alginic acidHealth Code: Green, Alginates may have beneficial effects on health, alginates inhibit absorption of essential nutrients in animal testsDessert mix, custard mix, ice cream, yoghurtCosmetics, boiler water
E404Calcium AlginateAlgin; alginic acid calcium saltThickener, StabiliserHalaalfrom alginic acidHealth Code: Green, Alginates may have beneficial effects on health, they inhibited absorption of essential nutrients in animal testsIce cream, soft and cottage cheeses, cheese snacks, instant dessertsHand lotion and cream, shampoo, wave sets
E405Propylene glycol alginatePropylene glycol alginate ester; Propane-1,2-diol alginateThickener, StabiliserHalaalSythetic from alginic acidHealth Code: Yellow, Can cause allergic reactions, reduced growth and loose stools in animal studies, alginates inhibited absorption of essential nutrients in some animal testsFrozen custard, salad dressing, ice cream, fruit sherbetCosmetics
E406Agar AgarAgar; Japanese isinglass; gelose; vegetable gelatineThickener, EmulsifierHalaalseaweedHealth Code: Green, safe in food use at low levels, mildly toxic by ingestion, allergic reactionsIce cream, baked goods, desserts, manufactured meats, jelliesCosmetics, bulk laxative
E407CarrageenIrish mossThickener, Vegetable gumHalaalseaweed extractHealth Code: Red, May affect gastrointestinal tract, stomach, NRC, ulcerative colitis, animasl carcinogenIce cream, dessert mix, confectionery, pastries, biscuits, chocolate productsCosmetics, cough medicines, toothpaste
E407aProcessed Eucheuma SeaweedPES; PNG-carrageenan; semi-refined carrageenanThickener, StabiliserHalaalIn addition to carrageenan polysaccharides, processed eucheuma seaweed may contain up to 15% of insoluble algal cellulose and minor amounts of other insoluble matter. ArticHealth Code: Yellow, Uncertainities exist as to the safety of this additiveProcessed foods
E410Locust Bean GumCeratonia gum; Carob bean gum.Thickener, EmulsifierHalaalfrom pod of Carob tree. Also for Carob powderHealth Code: Green, safe in food use at low levels, may lower cholesterol levelsInfant formula, ice cream, pickles, icings, toppings, chutney, cheese, confectioneryCosmetics, animal feed, detergent, adhesives
E412Guar GumGuar flour; Jaguar gum; Cluster bean; DecorpaThickener, StabiliserHalaalpea extractHealth Code: Green, safe in food use at low levels, excess can cause abdominal cramps, nausea, flatulence, diarrhoeaBaked goods, jam, cereals, cheese spreads, jellies, beverages, infant foods, toppingsBinding tablets, cosmetics, slimming aids (caution recommended)
E413TragacanthGum dragon; Gum tragacanthThickener, EmulsifierHalaalfrom trunk and branches of Astragalus treeHealth Code: Yellow, safe in food use at low levels, adverse reactions such as asthma, abdominal pain, contact dermatitis, dyspnoea, anaphylaxis and constipation can occur but are rareSauces, fruit jelly, salad dressing, confections, icingsShaving cream, rouge, toothpaste foundation
E414Gum ArabicAcacia; Sudan gum; Gum hashab; Kordofan gumThickener, EmulsifierHalaalfrom stems & branches of Acacia treeHealth Code: Yellow, Low oral toxicity, asthma, skin rash, hives, hay feverConfectionery, soft drinks, chewing gu, jelly, glazescosmetics, hair products, medicines
E415Xanthan gumCorn sugar gum; Polysaccharide B-1459Thickener, EmulsifierHalaalfermentation of corn sugarHealth Code: Green, safe in food useJellies, sweets, dairy products, breakfast cereal, salad dressingAnimal feeds, cigarettes
E416Karaya GumSterculia gum; Indian tragacanthThickener, StabiliserHalaalfrom trunk & stems of Sterculia treeHealth Code: Yellow, Asthma, hives, hay fever, dermatitis, reduces nutrient intake, gastric irritationIce cream, baked goods, sweets, gumdrops, frozen dairy dessertsHair-spray, setting lotion, hand lotion, toothpaste, shaving cream
E417Tara GumN/AThickener, StabiliserHalaalfrom seeds of Tara treeHealth Code: Green, safe in food useIce cream, cheese, bakery products, sauces
E418Gellan gumN/AThickener, StabiliserHalaalmicrobiological fermentationHealth Code: Green, safe in food use at low levels, excess can cause diarrhoeaVarious foods
E420(i)SorbitolD-Glucitol; D-sorbitol; L-gulitol; sorbit; HandsanHalaalsynthesised from glucose
E420(ii)Sorbitol SyrupN/AHalaalAqueous solution of sorbitol and hydrogenated oligosaccharides
E421MannitolManna SugarSweetener, HumectantHalaalPrepared from seaweed or manna or by hydrogenation of glucose, sucrose, fructose, or monosaccharidesHealth Code: Red, Hypersensitivity reactions, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, hives, NRC and diabetics, kidney disfunction, gastric irritation, anaphylaxisCarbohydrate modified foods or low calories foods, chewing gum, sweets, jams, jelliesHand cream, hair grooming products
E425Konjac gumN/AEmulsifier, ThickenerHalaalfrom Konjac plant rootHealth Code: Yellow, Choking hazard in dry form, diarrhoea, abdominal pain, stomach problems, nutrient disruptionSoups, gravy, jam, mayonnaise, lollies
E426Soyabean HemicelluloseN/AHalaalsoya bean
E432Tween 20Polysorbate 20; Polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monolaurateEmulsifier, StabiliserHalaalLauric esters of sorbitol condensed with ethylene oxideHealth Code: Red, Polysorbates can contain residues of harmful chemicalks, can increase the absorption of fat soluble substancesCosmetic cream and lotion
E434Tween 40Polysorbate 40; Polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monopalmitateEmulsifierHalaalPalmitate ester of sorbitol copolymerised with ethylene oxideHealth Code: Red, Polysorbates can contain residues of harmful chemicalks, can increase the absorption of fat soluble substancesWhipped cream, soup, beverages, confectionery
E442Emulsifier YNAmmonium phosphatidesEmulsifier, StabiliserHalaalsynthetic chemicalHealth Code: Green, safe in food useBread, chocolate, confectionery, frying oils
E444Sucrose Acetate IsobutyrateSAIB; sucrose diacetate hexaisobutyrateEmulsifier, StabiliserHalaalsynthetic chemicalHealth Code: Green, safe in food use, produced liver damage in dogs but not in other speciesCitrus flavoured beverages
E450(a)diSodium PyrophosphatediSodium dihydrogen diphosphate; DSPP; disodium dihydrogen pyrophosphate; acid sodium pyrophosphate; trisodium diphosphate; tetrapotassium diphosphate.Halaalsodium & potassium salts of pyrophosphoric acid (from phosphoric acid)
E450(b)pentaSodium TriphosphateSTPP; Sodium tripolyphosphate; pentapotassium triphosphate; potassium tripolyphosphateHalaalSource: sodium & potassium salts of triphosphoric acid (from phophoric acid)
E450(c)Sodium PolyphosphatesPolyphosphoric acid sodium or potassium saltsHalaalSodium & potassium salts of polyphosphoric acid (from phosphoric acid)
E450(v)Tetrapotassium Pyrophosphatetetrapotassium diphosphate; potassium pyrophosphateHalaalsynthetic chemical
E451Triphosphates(i) pentasodium triphosphate; (ii) pentapotassium triphosphateEmulsifier, StabiliserHalaalsynthetic chemicalsHealth Code: Green, safe in food useProcessed cheese, meat and fish products, baking powder, cola drinks
E452Polyphosphates(i) sodium polyphosophate; (ii) Potassium polyphosphate; (iii) sodium calcium polyphosphate; (iv) calcium polyphosphates.Emulsifier, StabiliserHalaalsynthetic chemicalHealth Code: Green, safe in food useMeat and fish products, processed cheese, baking powder, cola drinksFertilisers, detergents
E459Beta-cyclodextrinN/AProcessing aid StabiliserHalaalfrom microbial action on starchHealth Code: Green, safe in food useProcessed foodsToothpaste, skin cream
E460CelluloseAvicel (microcrystalline cellulose); Alpha-cellulose (powdered cellulose)Anticaking Agent, BinderHalaalcellulose walls of plant fibreHealth Code: Green, safe in food useCakes, sauces, soups, biscuits, bread, spreads, jams, ice creamCosmetic cream, tablets
E461MethylcelluloseMethocel; CologelThickener, StabiliserHalaaltreatment of cellulose with methyl chlorideHealth Code: Green, safe in food use at low levels, laxative effect with excessInfant formula, ice cream, toppings, pickles, chutney, confectionery, imitation fruit, soupCosmetics, hand cream and lotion, sun cream, slimming aids
E462Ethyl CelluloseN/AHalaalfrom wood pulp or chemical cotton
E463HydroxypropylcelluloseN/AThickener, EmulsifierHalaaltreatment of cellulose with propylene oxideHealth Code: Green, safe in food use, may cause allergic reactionsLow fat cream, UHT creamCosmetics, tobacco
E464HydoxypropylmethylcelluloseHypromelloseEmulsifier, ThickenerHalaaltreatment of cellulose with methyl chloride & propylene oxideHealth Code: Green, safe in food use, mild eye and skin irritation, allergic reactionsConfectionery, infant formula, icing, topping, ice cream, pickles, soup, dried mixed fruitCosmetics, hair and skin preparations, bubble bath, tanning lotion
E465EthylmethylcelluloseMethylethylcelluloseThickener, EmulsifierHalaalfrom cellulose (plant)Health Code: Yellow, Can cause digestive problems, diarrhoea, flatulence, gastrointestinal disturbancesVegetable fat, low fat cream, imitation ice cream, whipped toppingsBulk laxative, tobacco
E466Carboxymethylcellulose SodiumCarboxymethylcellulose sodium salt; CMC; Sodium caboxymethylcellulose; sodium cellulose glycolate; Carmellose sodiumThickener, StabiliserHalaalSynthetically from cellulose (of plants)Health Code: Yellow, Poorly absorbed, flatulence, large amounts can cause diarrhoea and abdominal cramps, caused cancer and tumours in animal studiesInfant formula, ice cream, icings, confectionery, cottage cheese, cream cheese spreadHair setting lotion, hand cream, medication, laxatives, antacids, tobacco
E467Ethylhydroxyethyl CelluloseBermocoll EBS 481 FQ; cellulose ethyl hydroxyethyl ether; ethyl 2-hydroxyethyl ether cellulose; etulos; Bermocoll E 511 FQ.Halaalsynthetic chemical from cellulose
E468Crosslinked Sodium Carboxymethyl CelluloseCrosslinked NaCMCCarrierHalaalfrom celluloseHealth Code: Yellow, See Carboxy Methyl - cellulose (E466)Sweeteners
E469Enzymetically Hydrolysed Carboxymethyl CelluloseN/AThickener, StabiliserHalaalfrom celluloseHealth Code: Red, See Carboxy Methyl - cellulose (E466)Ice cream, soup, fatty meat products
E493Sorbitan MonolaurateSpan 20Emulsifier, StabiliserHalaalfrom sorbitol & lauric acidHealth Code: Green, safe in food use
E495Sorbitan MonopalmitateSpan 40Emulsifier, StabiliserHalaalfrom sorbitol & palmitic acidHealth Code: Green, safe in food useCake mixes
E500Sodium BicarbonateSodium hydrogen carbonate; Baking soda; Bicarbonate of soda; Sodium sesquicarbonate; TronaAcidity Regulator, Anticaking agentHalaalSynthetic chemical from Sodium Carbonate (a mineral)Health Code: Yellow, safe in food use at low levels, contact can cause forehead, scalp, and hand rash, respiratory distress, large doses can cause gastrointestinal bleeding, vomiting, diarrhoea, shock and deathConfectionery, custard mix, flour products, ice cream mix, soup, jams, chocolate, malted milk powderMouthwash, soap, bath, salts, vaginal douches, shampoo, laundry detergent, paper and glass manufacture
E501Potassium CarbonatePotassium hydrogen carbonateAcidity Regulator, StabiliserHalaalsyntheticHealth Code: Yellow, safe in food use, dermatitis of the scalp, forehead and hands, eye irritation, upper respiratory tract irritationConfections, cocoa products, low sodium salt substitute, soda waterShampoo, permanent wave lotion, washing powder
E503Hartshorn; Ammonium hydrogen carbonate; Ammonium bicarbonateBuffer NutralisersyntheticHalaalHealth Code: Green, safe in food use at low levels, contact can cause skin rashes on scalp, forehead and handsBaking powder, chocolate, cocoaPermanent wave solution and cream, fire extinguishers
E504Magnesium CarbonateMagnesiteAnticaking Agent, AlkaliHalaalmineralHealth Code: Green, safe in food use at low levels, excess may have a laxative effectSour cream, ice cream, canned peas, table saltBaby powder, face powder, perfume carrier
E507Hydrochloric AcidN/AAcidity Regulator, ModifierHalaalsyntheticHealth Code: Green, safe in food useCottage cheese, cream cheeseHair bleach, solvent
E508Potassium ChlorideN/AGelling agentHalaalMineralHealth Code: Yellow, safe in food use at low levels, intestinal ulcers, NRC, cardiovascular liver and respiratory toxicityReduced sodium foods, low sodium sal substituteCosmetics, fertiliser
E509Calcium ChlorideN/AFirming agent, SequestrantHalaalsyntheticHealth Code: Green, safe in food use at low levels, irritation of skin and mucous membranes, stomach upsets, irregular heartbeatCottage cheese, jellies, canned tomatoes, low sodium salt substituteCosmetics, eye lotion, fire extinguishers
E510Ammonium ChlorideN/AHalaalsynthetic
E511Magnesium ChloridemagnogeneFirming agent, BufferHalaalsynthetic chemicalHealth Code: Green, safe in food use at low levels, excess may have a laxative effectInfant formula, salt substitute, non-alcoholic beverages
E512Stannous ChlorideTin dichloride; tin protochloride; StannochlorAntioxidant, Colour retention agentHalaalsynthetic chemicalHealth Code: Yellow, Low systematic toxicity, but may be irritating to skin and mucous membranes, harmful to aquatic organismsCanned asparagus, canned fruit juice, canned soft drinksManufacture of dye
E513Sulphuric AcidSulfuric acidAcidity RegulatorHalaalsyntheticHealth Code: Green, safe in food useUsed to modify starchBrewing industry, cosmetic products
E514Sodium SulphateGlauber's saltAcidity Regulator, PreservativeHalaalmineralHealth Code: Yellow, safe in food use at low levels, skin irritation, gastrointestinal irritation, people with poor kidney or liver function should avoidChewing gum base, biscuits, tuna fishManufacture of dye, soap, detergents, glass and paper
E515Potassium SulphateN/AAcidity RegulatorHalaalmineralHealth Code: Green, safe in food use at low levels, large doses cause severe gastrointestinal bleedingLow sodium salt substitute, brewing industryCosmetics, medicines
E516Calcium SulphateGypsum; Plaster of ParisFirming agentHalaalmineralHealth Code: Green, safe in food use, large amounts may cause intestinal obstruction and constipationFlour products, baking powder, cereals flours, canned tomatoes, Gorgozola cheeseToothpastes and powder, brewing industry, insecticides
E517Ammonium SulphateSulphuric acid diammonium salt; mascagniteFlour treatment, StabiliserHalaalsynthetic chemicalHealth Code: Green, safe in food use, proved fatal to rats in large dosesBakery products, dough makingPermanent wave lotion, tanning industry, fertilisers
E518Magnesium SulphateEpson salts; EpsomiteHalaalmineral
E519Copper (II) SulphateCopper sulphate; copper sulfate; vitriolHalaalmineral, hydrocyanite or chalcanthite
E520Aluminium SulphateAlum; cake alum; patent alumModifierHalaalmineral alunogeniteHealth Code: Yellow, Moderately toxic by ingestion, pimples under the arms, allergic reactions, may affect reproduction. [see E173]Sweet and dill pickles, pickle relish, modifier for starchAntiperspirant, deodorant, skin freshners, packaging materials
E521Aluminium Sodium SulphateSodium Alum; Soda AlumBuffer Firming AgentHalaalsynthetic chemicalHealth Code: Yellow, safe in food use? skin rash from contact, mild sensitisation. [see E173]Cereal, flour, bleached flour, cheese
E522Aluminium Potassium SulphatePotassium Alum; alum flour; burnt alum; alum mealHalaalsynthetic chemical
E523Aluminium Ammonium SulphateBurnt Ammonium Alum; exsiccated ammonium alumStabiliser BufferHalaalsynthetic chemicalHealth Code: Yellow, safe in food use at low levels, ingestion of large doses can cause burning in mouth and throat, vomiting and diarrhoea [see E173]Bakjing powder, milling and cereal industriesPurification of drinking water, fire-proofing, vegetable glue
E524Sodium HydroxideCaustic Soda; LyeEmulsifierHalaalsyntheticHealth Code: Green, safe in food use, contact can cause demartitis, concentrate is hazardousModifier for starch, glazing of pretzelsShampoo, shaving cream, liquid drain cleaner
E525Potassium HydroxideN/AAlkali, EmulsifierHalaalsyntheticHealth Code: Yellow, safe in food use, skin irritation and nail damage in cuticle removers, tumours in mice when applied to the skinExtracting colour from Anatto seed, cacao productsHand lotion, shaving cream, cuticle removers
E526Calcium HydroxideN/AAcidity Regulator, Firming agentHalaalsyntheticHealth Code: Green, safe in food use, toxic and hazardous in concentrated formCanned peas, fruit products, infant formula, beer, aleDepilatories, animal feeds, plaster, pesticides
E527Ammonium HydroxideAmmonia Water; Ammonia %Acidity regulator, NutraliserHalaalsyntheticHealth Code: Yellow, safe in food use, irritating to eyes and mucous membranes, hair breakage, toxic by ingestionCocoa products, chocolateMetallic hair dye, barrier cream, stain remover, animal feed detergent
E528Magnesium HydroxidePericlaseAcidity RegulatorHalaalmineralHealth Code: Green, safe in food use at low levelsManufacture of some caramels, canned peas, cheese manufactureDentifrices,skin cream
E529Calcium OxideQuicklime; lime; burnt lime; calxEmulsifier, TexturiserHalaalsynthetic from limestoneHealth Code: Yellow, safe in food use, can cause severe damage to skin and mucous membranes on contact, thermal and chemical burnsConfectionery, custard mix, flour products, soup, malted milk powder, canned peasCosmetics, home and garden pesticides, insecticides, plaster
E530Magnesium OxidePericlase; Native magnesiumAnticaking Agent, Firming agentHalaalmineralHealth Code: Green, safe in food useFrozen dairy products, canned peas
E535Sodium FerrocyanideSodium hexacyanoferrate IIAnticaking AgentHalaalsyntheticHealth Code: Green, safe in food useSalts and condimentsProcessing wine
E536Potassium FerrocyanidePotassium hexacyanoferrate IIAnticaking Agent, ColouringHalaalsyntheticHealth Code: Yellow, Kidney toxicity, skin irritation, may be harmful by inhalation, ingestion and skin absorptionSalts and condiments
E538Calcium FerrocyanideN/AAnticaking AgentHalaalsynthetic chemicalHealth Code: Green, safe in food useTable salt
E540diCalcium DiphosphatediCalcium pyrophosphateHalaalmineral & synthetic
E541Sodium Aluminium PhosphateSodium Aluminium Phosphate acidic & basic. SAPEmulsifier, Acidity regulatorHalaalsynthetic from phosphoric acid. Propriety: Budal 2308Health Code: Yellow, safe in food use at low levels, people with kidney or heart disease may wish to avoid or limit intake [see Aluminium E173]Self-raising flour, various cheeses
E543Calcium Sodium PolyphosphateN/AHalaalsynthetic from phosphoric acid
E544Calcium PolyphosphatesN/AHalaalsynthetic from polyphosphoric acid
E545Ammonium PolyphosphatesN/AHalaalfrom phosphoric acid
E550Sodium SilicateWater glass; soluble glassHalaalsynthetic chemical
E551Silicon DioxideSilica; Silicic anhydride; Flogard; Sipernat 22S; Pirosil; aerosil 200Anticaking AgentHalaalSand; RocksHealth Code: Green, safe in food use, has beneficial health effectsDried egg products, beverage whitener, salt substitutesBeer production, animal feed, paper and paperboard
E552Calcium SilicateWollastoniteAnticaking Agent, Glazing agentHalaalmineralHealth Code: Green, safe in food use, inhalation may cause respiratory tract irritation, asthmaBaking powder, rice, chewing gum, table salt, vanilla powderFace powder, lime glass, cement
E553(a)Magnesium SilicateManesium trisilicateAnticaking AgentHalaalsyntheticHealth Code: Green, safe in food use at low levels, kidney stonesVanilla powderTalcum powder, shampoo, antacid
E553(b)TalcFrench chalk; magnesium hydrogen metasilicateAnticaking AgentHalaalmineralHealth Code: Red, Cancers (stomach anbd ovarian), cough, vomiting, respiratory problems, tumours, stomach problemsChocolate, chewing gum base, condiments, confectionery, polished riceEye make-up, bath powder, baby powder, animal feed, vitamin supplements
E554Aluminium Sodium SilicateSodium AluminosilicateAnticaking AgentHalaalmineral & syntheticHealth Code: Yellow, safe in food use at low levels [see E173]Beverage whitener, baking powder, dry soup mixBarrier cream, depilatories
E555Pottasium Aluminium SilicateMicaAnticaking AgentHalaalmineral muscoviteHealth Code: Yellow, see Aluminium E173Cheese and cheese products
E556Aluminium Calcium SilicateCalcium Aluminium SilicateAnticaking AgentHalaalmineralHealth Code: Yellow, safe in food use at low levels [see E173]Garlic salt, table salt, vanilla powder
E558BetoniteBentonitum; soap clayThickener, Anticaking agentHalaalclay depositeHealth Code: Yellow, safe in food use, may clog skin pores inhibiting proper skin function [see E173]Colouring in wine, sugar brewing and purification, settling wine sedimentsCosmetics, facial masks, animal and poultry feeds, detergents
E559KaolinKaolin heavy or light; Aluminium silicateAnticaking AgentHalaalmineralHealth Code: Yellow, safe in food use. [see E173]Beer productionBaby powder, bath powder, face powder
E574Gluconic AcidD-gluconic acid; dextronic acid; maltonic acid; glyconic acid; glycogenic acid; pentahydroxy caproic acidAnticaking Agent, SequestrantHalaalprepared from glucose or cornHealth Code: Green, safe in food useUnstandardised foodsCosmetics, metal cleaners and degreasers
E575D-Glucono-1,5-lactoneGlucono delta-lactoneAcidity RegulatorHalaalsynthetic from glucoseHealth Code: Green, safe in food use at low levels, excess can cause diarrhoeaCottage cheese, meat processing, jelly powder, canned vegetablesCleaning agents, brewing beer
E576Sodium GluconateGluconic acid sodium saltAcidity Regulator, SequestrantHalaalsynthetic from glucoseHealth Code: Green, safe in food use, people with heart disease or high blood pressure may wish to avoid or limitMetal cleaner, paint stripper, metal plating, rust remover
E577Potassium GluconateGluconic acid potassium saltSequestrantHalaalsynthetic from glucoseHealth Code: Green, safe in food useSoda water
E578Calcium GluconateGluconic acid calcium saltBuffer SequestrantHalaalsynthetic from glucoseHealth Code: Yellow, Gastric irritation, stomach problems, heart problemsPreserves, infant formula, anticaking of coffee powderCosmetics, animal feed
E579Ferrous GluconateFergon; Ferlucon; Ferronicum; Gluco-Ferrum; Iromon; Irox; NionateColour retention agent, FlavouringHalaalsynthetic chemicalHealth Code: Red, Toxic in large amounts, diarrhoea, vomiting, may affect gastrointestinal tract, liver, stomach, caused tumours in miceInfant formula, dietary food, preserved lipe olivesIron supplements
E585Ferrous LactateN/AColour fixativeHalaallactic acidHealth Code: Green, safe in food use, caused tumours in mice when injected under the skinDietary supplement
E5864-HexylresorcinolST 37; Ascaryl; Caprokol; Crystoids; Gelovermin; Sucrets; Worm-agenHalaalsynthetic chemical
E620L-Glutamic Acidaminoglutaric acid; 2-aminopentanedioic acid; 1-aminopropane-1,3-dicarboxylic acidFlavour enhancer, AntioxidantHalaalmicrobiological fermentation or acid hydrolysis of vegetable proteinsHealth Code: Yellow, Asthma, headache, nausea, sleep disturbancesAdding meat flavour to foods, improving the taste of beer (together with hydrochrolic acid)Cosmetics, permanent wave lotion, treatment of epilepsy.
E621MonoSodium GlutamateMSG; Sodium hydrogen L-glutamate; Aji-no-moto; Sodium glutamate monohydrate; AccentFlavour enhancerHalaalfermentation using molasses from cane or beet sugar or wheat proteinHealth Code: Red, Bronchospasm, heart palpitations, abdominal discomfort, irritability, fibromyalgia, nausea, depression, headache, migraine, asthma, blurred vision, vertigo, sight impairment, teratogenic, aspirin sensitive people may wish to avoid, NRCMay be found in packet soup, quick soup, flavoured noodles, textured protein, malt extract, yeast extract, TVP, soy sauce, gelatine, flavourings (chicken, beef, pork, smoke).Hidden sources of MSG including soap, cosmetics, shampoo, hair conditioner, most 'live virus' vaccines.
E622monoPotassium GlutamatePotassium hydrogen L-glutamateFlavour enhancerHalaalsynthetic from glutamic acidHealth Code: Red, see Monodium Glutamate E621Low sodium salt substitute
E623Calcium Dihydrogen di-L-glutamateN/AFlavour enhancerHalaalsynthetic from glutamic acidHealth Code: Yellow, Asthma, aspirin sensitive people may wish to avoid, probably similar to MSGLow sodium salt substitute
E624Monoammonium GlutamateAmmonium glutamateFlavour enhancerHalaalSynthetic chemicalHealth Code: Yellow, Contains MSG, allergic reactionsLow sodium salt substitute
E625Magnesium DiglutamateMagnesium glutamateFlavour enhancerHalaalsynthetic chemicalHealth Code: Green, safe in food use at low levels, contains MSG, excess may have a laxative effectLow sodium salt substitute
E626Guanylic acid5-guanylic acidFlavour enhancerHalaalyeast or sardines or micro synthesisedHealth Code: Green, Mildly toxic by ingestionCanned foods, sauces, soup, snacks
E627Sodium GuanylateGuanosine 5-disodium phosphateFlavour enhancerHalaalsynthetic; guanylic acidHealth Code: Yellow, Aspirin sensitive people may wish to avoid, people with gout or uric acid kidney stones may wish to avoid, NRCCanned foods, sauces, snack foods, soups
E628Dipotassium GuanylatePotassium guanylate; Potassium 5-guanylateFlavour enhancerHalaalguanylic acidHealth Code: Green, safe in food use, people with gout or uric acid kidney stones may wish to avoidCanned vegetables
E629Calcium GuanylateCalcium 5-guanylateFlavour enhancerHalaalguanylic acidHealth Code: Green, safe in food use, may trigger gout
E636Maltol3-Hydroxy-2-methyl-(1,4-pyran); 3-Hydroxy-2-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one; Larixinic acid; 2-Methyl pyromeconic acid; Palatone; VeltolHalaalsynthetic chemical also from trees
E637Ethyl Maltol3-Hydroxy-2-ethyl-4-pyrone; 2-Ethyl pyromeconic acid; 3-Ethyl-2-hydroxy-4H-pyran-4-one; 2-Ethyl-3-ol-4H-pyran-4-oneHalaalsynthetic from maltol
E650Zinc AcetateN/AFlavour enhancerHalaalsynthetic chemicalHealth Code: Green, safe in food use at low levels, large doses can cause nausea and vomitingChewing gumDietary supplement, animal feed
E900DimethylpolysiloxaneSimethicone; DimethiconeAntifoaming agentHalaalsyntheticHealth Code: Yellow, Acute or delayed hyper-sensitivity reactions, nausea, diarrhoeaChewing gum, soft drinks, jam, instant coffee, cordialsOintment base, topical drugs, skin protectant
E901BeeswaxBeeswax white or yellowGlazing and polishing agentHalaalbee honeycombHealth Code: Green, safe in food use, can cause mild allergic reactions and contact dermatitisConfectionery, soft drinks, chewing gumMascara, eye make-up, baby cream, lipstick, cosmetics
E902Candelilla WaxN/AGlazing agent, EmollientHalaalfrom candelilla plantsHealth Code: Green, safe in food use but needs further testingCoating for foods, chewing gumLipstick, writing inks, cosmetics
E903Carnuaba WaxN/AGlazing agent, TexturiserHalaalfrom leaves of Brazillian wax palmHealth Code: Green, Rarely causes allergic reactions, contact dermatitis, gastric irritationConfectionery, waxed fruit, fruit juice, saucesCosmetics, lipstick, mascara, varnishes
E905Mineral HydrocarbonsN/AGlazing agentHalaalpetroleum distillateHealth Code: Green, safe in food useCake decorationsTablet coatings, laminating paper and foils
E905aMineral OilLiquid paraffin; Liquid Petrolatum; paraffin oil; NujolHalaalfrom petroleum
E906Gum BenzoicGum Benzoin; gum benzoeHalaalfrom Sytroc tree
E907Refined Microcrystalline WaxN/AHalaalpetroleum
E908Rice Bran WaxN/AHalaalrice
E912Montanic acid estersMontan Wax; lignite waxSurface coatingHalaalfrom lignite. Bleaching of Montan wax (palm fossil)Health Code: Yellow, Insufficient information to assessProtective layer on fruit skins, coating on foods
E913LanolinSheep wool grease; wool fat; oesipos; agnin; alapurinHalaalsheep secretion found on wool
E914Oxidised Polyethylene WaxN/AHumectantHalaalsynthetic chemicalHealth Code: Yellow, Carcinogenic?, kidney and liver damageUsed as a protective coating on fruits and vegetables
E922Potassium Persulphatepotassium persulfate; AnthionHalaalsynthetic chemical
E923Ammonium Persulphateammonium persulfate; ammonium peroxydisufateHalaalsynthetic chemical
E924Potassium BromateN/AHalaalsynthetic chemical
E925ChlorineN/AHalaalsynthetic chemical
E926Chlorine DioxideChlorine peroxideHalaalsynthetic chemical
E927AzodicabonamideAzoforamide; Azo dicarboxillic acid; Azo bisformamideHalaalsynthetic chemical
E927bCarbamideUrea; carbonyldiamideBrowning agent, DeodoriserHalaalsynthetic chemicalHealth Code: Green, safe in food use, skin irritation, allergic reactions, headacheBaked goods, chewing gum, pretzelsRoll on deodorant, shampoo, mouthwash, hair colouring
E928Benzoyl Peroxidedibenzyl peroxide; benzoyl superoxideHalaalsynthetic chemical
E930Calcium Peroxidecalcium dioxideHalaalsynthetic chemical
E938ArgonN/APackaging gasHalaalAirHealth Code: Green, safe in food usePackaging of foodsWelding
E939HeliumN/APackaging gas, PropellantHalaalNatural gasHealth Code: Green, safe in food useArc welding, inflating balloons
E940Dichlorodifluoromethanedifluorodichloromethane; Freon 12; Frigen 12; HalonHalaalsynthetic chemical
E941NitrogenN/APropellant, Packing gasHalaalAirHealth Code: Green, safe in food useFreezing and vacuum packing of foodsPreservative in cosmetics
E942Nitrous OxideDinitrogen monoxide; laughing gas; hyponitrous acid anhydride; factitious airPropellantHalaalsynthetic chemicalHealth Code: Green, safe in food useFlour (bleeched), food aerosolsWhipped cosmetic cream
E943aButanen-butaneColouringHalaalpetroleumHealth Code: Yellow, Animal carcinogen, CNS depression, on NIH hazards list, neurotoxicityRefrigerantAerosol cosmetics
E943bIsobutane2-methyl propane; methyl propanePropellantHalaalsynthetic chemicalHealth Code: Yellow, See ButaneSpray-on pan coatingsCosmetic spray, refrigeration
E944PropaneDimethylmethane; propyl hydridePropellant, AeratorHalaalpetroleumHealth Code: Yellow, May be narcotic in high concentrations, neurotoxicity, being reassessed for safetyFoamed and sprayed foodsCosmetics in aerosols
E948OxygenN/APackaging gasHalaalAirHealth Code: Green, safe in food useManufacture of cider
E949HydrogenProtiumPackaging gasHalaalsynthetic chemicalHealth Code: Green, safe in food useHydrogenation of oils like soybean, corn and cottonseedProduction of sorbitol used in cosmetics
E950Acesulfame KAcetosulfam K.Artifificial Sweetener, Flavour EnhancerHalaalsynthetic chemicalHealth Code: Red, Caused lung tumours, breast tumours, leukaemia, respiratory disease and cancer in animalsArtificial sweetener, low calorie foods, low joule chewing gumOral care products
E951AspartameAPM; SC 18862; Canderel; Equal; NutraSweet; Sanecta; Tri-SweetArtifificial Sweetener, Flavour EnhancerHalaalsynthetic chemicalHealth Code: Red++, headache, depression, anxiety, asthma, fatigue, hyperactivity, MS like symptoms, blindness, aggression, migraine, insomnia, dizziness, irritability, epilepsy, memory loss, seizures - more than 92 in all, NRC, not recommended for women durin pregnancyArtificial sweeteners, low calorie foods, diet drinks, chewing gum, softdrinks, instant coffee and may be added to anything which is sugar free or without added sugar.Medications, including those for children
E952(i)Cylamic AcidCyclohexylsulfamic acid; cyclohexanesulfamic acid; hexamic acid.Halaalsynthetic chemical
E952(iii)Calcium CyclamateCyclamic acid calcium salt; Cyclan; Sucaryl calciumHalaalsynthetic chemical
E953IsomaltPalatinin; hydrogenated isomaltuloseArtificial Sweetener, ThickenerHalaalsynthetically from sucroseHealth Code: Green, safe in food use, gastric irritationIce cream, jams, baked goodsCosmetics
E954Saccharin and its SaltsBenzosulphamide; o-sulphobenzimide; o-suphobenzoic acid imide; Glucide; Glucid; Saccharin sodium; Saccharin potassium; Saccharin calcium.Artificial SweetenerHalaalsynthetic chemicalHealth Code: Red, Hives, pruritis, NRC, eczema, nausea, diarrhoea, diuresis, headache, mutagenic, carcinogenic, teratogenicDiet soft drinks, sugar substituteChewable aspirin, pharmaceutical preparations
E955SucraloseN/AArtificial SweetenerHalaalchlorinated sucrose derivativeHealth Code: Yellow, Thymus shrinkage, kidney and liver enlargement in animal studiesConfectionery, fruit spreads, desserts, baked goods
E957ThaumatinTalinFlavour enhancer, SweetenerHalaalfruit extract of Benth treeHealth Code: Green, safe in food useChewing gum, Japanese seasonings?
E959Neohesperidine DihydroChalconeNeohesperidine DCSweetener, Flavour enhancerHalaalSynthetically from naringen (from grapefruit).Health Code: Green, safe in food useCheese, chewing gum, snack foods, instant coffeeSpecialty beers
E962Salt of Aspartame-AcesulfameN/AArtificial SweetenerHalaalfrom aspartame & acesulfameHealth Code: Red, See Aspartame [E951] and Acesulfame K [E950]Instant pudding mix, dairy shake mixes, chewing gum, chocolate
E965(i)MaltitolHydrogenated maltose; D-maltitolHalaalfrom maltose & glucose
E965(ii)Maltitol SyrupHGS; hydrogenated glucose syrup; LycasinHalaalfrom glucose & maltose
E966LactitolLactositol; lactit; lactobiositArtificial Sweetener, TexturiserHalaallactose derivativeHealth Code: Green, safe in food useBaked goods, chewing gum
E967XylitolD-xylitol; Xyliton; xyliteHumectant, StabiliserHalaalsythetic from xylose or xylan from plantsHealth Code: Green, safe in food use at low levels, reported to have beneficial effects on health, large doses cause diarhhoea and flatulence, has caused tumours in ratsIce cream, chocolate, jams, confectionery, chewing gum, toffee, mintsToothpaste
E968ErythritolErythrol; erythrite; meso-erythritol; erytroglucin; phyciteHalaalfrom algae, lichens, & grasses
E999Quillaia ExtractQuillajaFoaming agent, FlavouringHalaalbark extract of Quillaja treeHealth Code: Green, safe in food use, gastrointestinal irritation, large doses can cause liver damage, respiratory failure, convulsions and comaSoft drinks, ice cream, sweets
E904ShellacN/AGlazing agentHalaalresin of lac insectHealth Code: Green, safe in food use, allergic contact dermatitis, skin irritationTablet sealer; Varnish or glazing; Sweets, waxed fruitCosmetics, hair lacquer, tablets, mascara, jewellery